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The Department of Nephrology is one of the most advanced in this region with a team of dedicated specialists who provide treatment to patients suffering from all types of kidney diseases from acute to complicated renal failures.


Dialysis is a treatment where the functions of the kidney are replicated by the dialysis process in situations where the kidneys have failed to function normally.

When is dialysis needed?

Dialysis is needed when you develop end stage kidney failure - usually when 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function is lost and there is a GFR of < 15. Click here to learn more about the stages of Chronic Kidney Disease and GFR.

What does dialysis do?

Dialysis is required to keep the body in balance by:

  • waste, salt and extra water removal to prevent them from building up in the body
  • ensuring maintenance of a safe level of chemicals in your blood, like potassium, sodium and bicarbonate
  • blood pressure control

Is kidney failure permanent?

In some cases, acute kidney failure can get better after treatment. In such cases of acute kidney failure, dialysis is done only for a short time until the kidneys get better.

In chronic or end stage kidney failure, your kidneys do not get better and you will need dialysis for the rest of your life unless transplant is an option.

Are there different types of dialysis?

Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are the two types of dialysis

Will dialysis help cure the kidney disease?

No. Dialysis does the work of healthy kidneys, but it does not cure the kidney disease.

Is dialysis uncomfortable?

The dialysis treatment is painless. However, some patients may have fall in BP, nausea, vomiting, headache or cramps. With frequent treatments, those problems usually go away.

Do dialysis patients feel normal?

Many patients live normal lives except for the time needed for treatments. Dialysis usually makes you feel better because it helps many of the problems caused by kidney failure.

Do dialysis patients have to control their diets?

Yes. You may be on a special diet. The diet may vary according to the type of dialysis.

Can dialysis patients continue to work?

Many dialysis patients can go back to work after they have gotten used to dialysis.


In hemodialysis, waste and extra chemicals and fluid from your blood are removed by a hemodialyser machine. To get your blood into the machine, an access is made into your blood vessels. This is done by minor surgery to your arm or leg. Sometimes, joining an artery to a vein under your skin to make a bigger blood vessel called a fistula is also done.

How long do hemodialysis treatments last?

This depends on:

  • how good kidney function is
  • fluid weight gained between treatments
  • build and weight of patient
  • the type of dialyzer used

Usually, each hemodialysis treatment lasts about four hours and is done three times per week.

Peritoneal dialysis

In this type of dialysis, your blood is cleaned within your body. A plastic tube called a catheter is placed into your abdomen to make an access. During the treatment, the peritoneal cavity in the abdominal area is slowly filled with dialysate through the catheter. The blood stays in the arteries and veins that line your peritoneal cavity. Extra fluid and waste products are drawn out of your blood and into the dialysate. Plasma exchange may be done along with dialysis, to filter clotting factors and unwanted proteins. Charcoal hemofiltration in which a charcoal layer is used to remove wastes from blood, a process similar to dialysis, may sometimes be used.

What are the different kinds of peritoneal dialysis and how do they work?

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) are the two common types.

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is the only type of peritoneal dialysis that is done without machines. The patient can do it themselves usually four or five times a day at home or work. A bag of dialysate needs to be put into your peritoneal cavity through the catheter. The dialysate stays there for about four or five hours before it is drained back into the bag and thrown away. This is called an exchange.

Automated Peritoneal Dialysis (APD) is done using a special machine called a cycler. This is similar to CAPD except that a number of cycles (exchanges) occur. Each cycle usually lasts 1-1/2 hours and exchanges are done throughout the night while you sleep.


  • CRRT
  • HD
  • SLED
  • Nocturnal Hemodialysis
  • Short Daily Frequent Hemodialysis
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Home Hemodialysis
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Hemperfusion for poisoning cases

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